22 May 2019

Victoria's Guide

Queen Victoria and Prince Albert with their first five children
By Franz Xaver Winterhalter from the Royal Collection
via Wikimedia Commons
May 24, 2019 marks 200 years since the birth of Princess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent, known to us today as Queen Victoria. At the time she was born, everyone knew that she might rise to the throne, but the odds were still against her. Her father, Edward Duke of Kent, had three older brothers who might have fathered children ahead of her in the line of succession. Also, if her father had a son, Victoria would lose her place in line to that little brother due to male-preference primogeniture of the day.

Even for those who could imagine her eventual ascension, how well might they have imagined her iconic status as Queen and Empress and as the person for whom an entire age is named? What is the 19th Century if not Victorian? Around the world, lakes, towns, territories, mountains, etc. etc. Her descendants sit on five European thrones (Denmark, Norway, Spain, Sweden & the United Kingdom). At least 27 of her descendants have born her name, including the next Queen Regnant of Sweden.

In celebration of her anniversary, here is an index to all of the Princess Palace posts that have been published about her, her daughters and granddaughters over the years:

Queen Victoria
Long May She Reign (Queen Victoria et al)
Losing Her Prince (Queen Victoria et al)
The Mother of the Bride (QueenVictoria)
Queen Victoria (Queen Victoria)
Victoria's Secrets: 10 Things You Don't Know About the Famous Queen (Queen Victoria)
Young Royal Widows (Queen Victoria et al)

Victoria's Daughters
Darling Vicky's Birthday (Victoria Princess Royal)
Darling Baby: Beatrice's Brief Childhood (Princess Beatrice)
50 Years Ago: Death of Princess Beatrice (Princess Beatrice)
10 Centuries of Royal Moms (Princess Alice et al)
Amiable and Affectionate Alice's Birthday (Princess Alice)
The Kiss of Death (Princess Alice)

Victoria's Granddaughters
Gorgeous Granddaughters of Victoria (all of the granddaughters)
The Princesses & The Soldiers (many of the granddaughters and great-granddaughters)
Death to the Queen: One Night at the Palacio Real (Queen Victoria Eugenie)
Fire at the Palace (Queen Sophie)
The Royal Lady Who Passed Her Name Down (Queen Sophie)
The Last Romanov Ladies Part 1 (Empress Alexandra)
The Last Romanov Ladies Part 3 (Grand Duchess Elizabeth et al)
Victoria of the United Kingdom (Victoria of the UK)

18 May 2019

A Windsor Wedding: Lady Gabriella

On May 18, 2019, St. George's Chapel at Windsor Castle hosted its third royal wedding in a year. The first was the internationally celebrated marriage of Prince Harry of Wales and American Meghan Markle, now known as The Duke and Duchess of Sussex, on May 19, 2018. On October 12, 2018, the chapel hosted the nuptials of Princess Eugenie of York to Jack Brooksbank. The latest union to be celebrated is that of Lady Gabriella Windsor to Thomas Kingston.

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Lady Gabriella Marina Alexandra Ophelia is the youngest grandchild of the late Prince George of the United Kingdom and Princess Marina of Greece, better known as The Duke and Duchess of Kent. Gabriella is first cousin once removed to Queen Elizabeth II. She is a great-grandchild of King George V of the UK, a great-great-grandchild of King George I of Greece, and a great-great-great grandchild (twice over) of King Christian IX of Denmark and of Tsar Alexander II of Russia.

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Born in April 1981, she is the only daughter of Prince Michael of Kent and his wife Baroness Marie Christine von Reibnitz, better known as Princess Michael of Kent. (Read my post about Princess Michael.) She grew up at their former country home in Gloucestershire and in London at Kensington Palace, where they were neighbors of Princes William and Harry of Wales, who are just a bit younger than she is.

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The Michaels earn their own living. The Prince is a business consultant with many interests in Russia. The Princess is an interior designer and author. Ella, as their daughter is nicknamed, also writes professionally. Her work has appeared in several prominent publications like Country Life, Hola!, The Spectator and The London Magazine. She completed a Bachelor of Arts degree in comparative literature at Brown University in the United States in 2004. Seven years ago, she earned a Master of Philosophy degree in social anthropology Linacre College at the University of Oxford. (Her older brother Lord Frederick Windsor is a financial analyst and is married to actress Sophie Winkleman -- read my post about her.)

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The groom, Thomas Kingston, completed his education at Bristol University, taking a bachelor of degree in economic history. He initially worked for the Foreign Office, including several years as a project officer at the Iraqi Institute of Peace in Baghdad. He currently is a director at Davenport Capital working in frontier market investment. Thomas previously dated The Duchess of Cambridge's sister, Pippa Middleton Matthews, who attended the wedding along with their parents, Carol and Michael Middleton and her husband, James Matthews. (Thomas and Gabriella were are James and Pippa's wedding two years ago.)

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Several members of the British Royal Family attended the wedding. These included The Queen, Duke of Edinburgh, Duke (and former Duchess) of York, Earl of Wessex, Duke of Sussex, Princess Beatrice of York and, of course, the extended Kent branch of the family. The former King and Queen of Greece as well as members of other former royal families, particularly Brazil and Yugoslavia were also present.

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Among Gabriella's five little bridesmaids and three pageboys were her nieces, Maud and Isabella Windsor. This was five-year-old Maud's second gig as royal bridesmaid as she filled the same role for her godmother, Princess Eugenie, in October. 

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15 May 2019

Strange Royal Baby Names

By Chris Allerton via SussexRoyal
When The Duke and Duchess of Sussex announced that their son's name would be Archie Harrison, many people around the world scratched their heads. With no precedent in the British Royal Family, Archie just did not sound royal to people. Of course, Archie himself is not royal -- he is a great grandson of the monarch outside of the direct line of succession. His daddy is not destined to be King and neither is he. He is also in welcome company of Queen Elizabeth II's great grandchildren who have unusual, or at least non-royal, given names. Like Archie, the names Savannah, Isla, Mia and Lena have also never appeared in the Royal Family tree before. And, let's not forget that Princess Anne's son Peter was the first Peter to be born near the throne in Britain when he arrived in 1977 and his sister was certainly the first Zara in 1981.

While giving unprecedented names to royal descendants may seem extraordinarily modern, it is actually a tradition that dates back to the beginning of this stem of the British Royal Family, beginning with the Georgians/Hanoverians three centuries ago. At that time, Princess Anne Stuart was about to succeed her childless brother-in-law (who had been co-monarch with her sister Mary) to the throne. However, Anne's 14 children had all died young. Parliment wished to settle the succession question to ensure that none of Anne's Catholic cousins acceded to the throne. So, they drew up the 1701 Act of Settlement declaring that only Anne's second cousin Electress Sophia of Hanover, a Stuart descendant but in the female line, and her descendants were eligible to the throne. As the mother of three living adult sons at the time, Sophia seemed a great choice. Sophia died just weeks before Anne, leaving the throne to her oldest son, who became King George I in 1714.

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In the 300 years since then, nearly 100 royal youngsters have been added to the British Royal Family. More than a quarter of them have been given names that never before appeared in the family. Among the most recent "new" names is one of Queen Elizabeth II's children, one of her grandchildren and one of her cousins. For all that we view Queen Victoria as being "old fashioned", her own name was unique at the time and, more incredibly, she gave "new" names to five of her nine children.

Of course, at the beginning of the Hanoverian dynasty, unusual names would be expected. They were German not British, after all, and when the first dynasts were born (prior to 1701), they did not have any idea that they would one day rule "this scepter'd isle." The first King George only had two children: a son named George and a daughter named Sophia Dorothea. George certainly became a common name for the dynasty, but it was not new for royals. In the Wars of the Roses, Yorkist Kings Edward IV and Richard III had a brother named George Duke of Clarence, who aligned himself with the enemy Lancastrians for a time.

Queen EmeritaSofia of Spain was named for her
grandmother Queen Sophia of Greece.
By Ricardo Stuckert/PR via Wikimedia Commons
George I's daughter Sophia Dorothea did not come to Britain with him, as she was already married to Prussian King Frederick William I, but her name certainly did. Several princesses after her bore the name Sophia and the name was eventually used for one of Queen Victoria's Prussian granddaughters, who married a King of Greece and had a granddaughter named for herself who is now Queen Emerita of Spain (and who, by the way, has a Spanish royal granddaughter named Sofia, keeping the name alive and well within the extended family).

The next King, George II, had eight children and gave "new" royal names to two of the them: Amelia and Caroline. The choice of Caroline was fairly obvious, however, as the name of George's wife, Caroline of Ansbach. It continued to occur in future generations and was carried into the Nordic royal families when their granddaughter Princess Caroline Matilda married a Danish King. The name Amelia occurred again when King George III gave it to his youngest (and favorite) daughter before it fell into disuse in the family. It was revived in the 1990s for Lady Amelia Windsor, granddaughter of the Queen's royal cousin, Prince Edward Duke of Kent.

George II's eldest son Frederick Prince of Wales predeceased him. He did not inherit the throne, but he did introduce the name Augusta for one of his nine royal children. Once again, the little princess was named for her mother, this time Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. It proved to be a popular name, occurring as recently as the Queen's grandmother's aunt Princess Augusta of Cambridge, who passed away in 1916.

Charlotte of Wales
By Sir Thomas Lawrence via Wikimedia Commons
Since Frederick was gone, George II was succeeded by his grandson George III, who went on to have 15 children, 13 of whom lived to adulthood and six of whom received unprecedented royal names: Charlotte, Ernest, Augustus, Adolphus, Octavius and Alfred. The name Charlotte once again came from the mother's name, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and has been used rather regularly since then. It almost became the name a reigning queen when the future King George IV gave it to his only child in 1796. Unfortunately, that Princess Charlotte of Wales died in childbirth and never inherited the throne. By the time Prince William chose the name for his daughter in 2015, it seemed very traditional indeed.

The names Ernest and Augustus passed quickly out of the British Royal Family when the Hanoverian and British thrones were separated at Queen Victoria's accession. As a female, she has barred from inheriting that crown, so it went to her next uncle Prince Ernest Augustus (she also had an Uncle Augustus), who had one child named George, who named his son Ernst August (the German version) and the heir of every generation since has borne the double name. The current heir is married to Princess Caroline of Monaco, from whom he is separated. He is also not on terms with his heir, another Ernst August, who opted to name his baby son Welf instead.

Having already had seven sons, King George III and Queen Charlotte were running out of ideas when an eighth baby boy arrived. Cleverly they drew upon their knowledge of Latin to give him the name Octavius, indicated his status as the eighth. No other royal child has been given the name since then. Perhaps because the little fellow died at the age of four or more likely because no one else has had an eighth son. However, George and Charlotte did not stop at eight boys. For their ninth, they drew back upon English history to use the name of England's only great king: Alfred the Great. Baby Alfred passed away shortly before his second birthday, but Queen Victoria used the name for her second son in 1844.

Princess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent
the future Queen Victoria
By Stephen Poyntz Denning via Wikimedia Commons
After the sudden tragic death of Princess Charlotte of Wales, mentioned above, King George III's many unmarried sons rushed into approved marriages and raced to father an heir for the throne. When the fourth son Prince Edward Duke of Kent's wife gave birth to a daughter, it didn't seem terribly likely that she would be Queen. After all, one of the older brothers might yet have a child or Kent himself might have a son who would take her place due to the male-preference succession of the time. Nevertheless Kent's oldest brother, George Prince of Wales, who was serving as Prince Regent for their "mad" father, was irritated when Kent proposed a grandiose name for the baby: Georgiana Charlotte Augusta Alexandrina Victoria. An argument over the baby's name took place at the baptismal font. The Regent finally agreed to let her be called Alexandrina, after the Russian Emperor who had so recently helped them defeat Napoleon. Not only was the name unprecedented in the British Royal Family, but Kent insisted she must have a second name at least. "Very well" big brother allowed, "call her after her mother" -- and she just happened to be Victoria of Saxe-Coburg. And, this is the story of how one of the most iconic royal names of the modern era entered into the British Royal Family and spread through her descendants to nearly every other European monarchy. This also explains why Queen Victoria was called Drina during her childhood. Perhaps even more than Archie, Alexandrina Victoria, was a rather odd a choice for a royal prince's child.

It is not surprising perhaps that the unprecedented Victoria did not pause to give unprecedented names to her own children, as mentioned above. She added Albert, Alice, Helena, Leopold and Beatrice to the list of suitable royal names. Drawing upon the names of her husband, Albert of Saxe-Coburg, and her father, she named her first son, Albert Edward, expecting that one day he would be the first King Albert. Although her chose the much more traditional King Edward as his regnal name, Alberts and Edwards have proliferated throughout the extended family. Even the Queen's father was named Prince Albert -- though he chose to be King George when the time came.

The name Alice largely stayed within their second daughter's own line: she gave a version of it to one of her daughters, Alix, who became the murdered Empress Alexandra of Russia. Alice's first daughter, Victoria of Hesse, gave the name Alice to her own first daughter. That little Alice married a Greek prince and became the mother of a boy named Prince Philip, who has been married to Queen Elizabeth II since 1947. Nevertheless, there have been no other Alices born into the British Royal Family. Likewise the name Helena, which Victoria gave to her third daughter, stayed in that line, but didn't get far. Princess Helena named one of her daughters Helena Victoria, who never had children. She and her childless sister Marie Louise were considered official members of the British Royal Family, even though they had born into a German princely house.

Queen Victoria named her youngest son Leopold after her uncle, who had been selected as the first King of Belgium. Before gaining his own throne, Uncle Leopold has been married to that tragic cousin Charlotte, who should have been Queen, if she had not died so tragically and young. Unfortunately Victoria's baby Leopold also died tragically and too young. He was the first member of the family to be diagnosed with hemophilia, a disease that would be passed on through two of Victoria's daughters into other royal, imperial and princely families. Leopold also passed it to his daughter, Princess Alice of Albany, named for his older sister who had at least one son and three grandsons afflicted with the condition. Leopold's name has yet to be employed again in the British Royal family although the Belgians have used it several times.

The three oldest Edinburgh princesses: (from left) Marie,
Victoria Melita and Alexandra
From the Royal Collection via Wikimedia Commons
The tradition of "new" royal name didn't end with Queen Victoria. Her heir King Edward VII added the male version of his mother's name to call his first child Prince Albert Victor. Victoria's second son Prince Alfred Duke of Edinburgh added another new name to the Queen's to name his second daughter Princess Victoria Melita. For his third daughter, he introduced the name Alexandra. By that time, the Princess of Wales was a Danish princess named Alexandra, but the name was more likely derived from the baby's maternal grandfather Tsar Alexander II of Russia. Meanwhile her third son Prince Arthur Duke of Connaught named his youngest daughter Princess Patricia of Connaught when the little girl was born on St. Patrick's Day.

Three more "new" royal names were added in the 20th Century. Edward VII's grandson, another Prince Edward Duke of Kent, was the first to name a British prince Michael in 1942. The Queen herself was the first to introduce the name Prince Andrew in 1960, when she named her third child for her husband's father, Greek Prince Andrew. Finally, today's Prince Andrew used another name without British precedent with his youngest child, Princess Eugenie. While Queen Victoria's granddaughter Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg was born in Balmoral Castle and grew up in the Queen's household, she was not officially a British royal. She had received the name in honor of her godmother, Empress Eugenie of France, who had been born into the Spanish nobility. The name returned to Spain, when Victoria Eugenie later married the Spanish king.

So, while the name Archie may never have been given to the son of a British prince before, its uniqueness has its own deep historical roots.

11 May 2019

Ancestress of the Aristocracy

By Peter Lely via Wikimedia Commons
The wife of Roger Palmer had six children, but Roger had none.

When you've got it, you've got it. And, Barbara Villiers definitely had it. Although she was born among the lower rungs of the English aristocracy, she rose to the very top by using the assets that had been granted her: stunning good looks and an even more stunning sensuality.

Soon after the teenage Barbara married the future Member of Parliament Roger Palmer, she met a man with an even brighter future: the exiled King Charles II. Charles has been living on the Continent since the English Civil War had ended the monarchy and executed his father, but he was preparing to return one day. Fortunately for Barbara, his libido was as big as his ambition. The two became lovers less than a year after her marriage. Despite this, Roger and Barbara remained together even when she bore a daughter, whom Charles later recognized as his own. Roger believed the little girl was his own and showed her favor throughout his life, even making her his heir. However, when another child arrived a year later, Roger apparently started to to figure out what was happening. He and Barbara separated but still remained married.

Always one with an eye for the ladies, the 32-year-old King already had three other children by two other women when Barbara gave birth to their second child together. He also had a brand new royal bride, the Portuguese Princess Catherine of Braganza. However, Charles was completely besotted with Barbara. When the already well-informed Catherine struck Barbara's name off a list of women intended to serve her, Barbara complained to the King, who publicly brought her to the Queen's presence. The convent-raised Catherine developed a bloody nose and fainted. This dramatic encounter clearly showed all and sundry that it was Barbara, not the new Queen, whom the King most wished to please. In fact, the King even dismissed all of Catherine's Portuguese ladies in a display of disgust at her behavior.

The two women remained bitter rivals, but neither managed to hold the King's undivided attention. In fact it's said that Barbara prayed fervently for Catherine's recovery from a deathly illness because she worried that a new Queen might not only replace her in the King's affections but might actually deliver an heir. You see, while Barbara continued to pop out royal bastards for Charles, Catherine never carried any of her few pregnancies to term. Barbara's fecundity was awarded by Charles after the very first child, when Charles gave her husband the title Earl of Castlemaine, thereby making her a Countess. Nine years later, he gave her her own titles as Duchess of Cleveland, Countess of Southampton and Baroness Nonsuch. This he did despite the fact that she was never sexually loyal to him. In fact, it was strongly believed that her last child didn't belong to the King. When Charles refused to acknowledge the expected baby, Barbara threatened to kill it. Always more ready for a party than a fight, Charles gave this new child the same royal surname as Barbara's other children, Fitzroy, which means "child of the King."

By Peter Lely via Wikimedia Commons
Known as the "Merry Monarch", Charles preferred to laugh at Barbara's sexual foibles. When he happened upon one of her poor, young lovers sneaking out the window, he hollered after him, "I forgive you, for I know you only do it for your bread." Of course, the "bread" that Barbara so generously gave to her lovers came largely from the King, who greatly enriched her. This combined with Barbara's strong political influence over Charles -- and it was well-known that her influence could be purchased by favor-seekers for the right price.

Many men found her incredibly alluring. Portrait artist Peter Lely, who once painted her as the Virgin Mary, said that her personal beauty was "beyond the power of art" to capture. Bishop Burnet, who found her "enormously vicious and ravenous, foolish but imperious", thought her a "woman of great beauty." Diarist Samuel Pepys wrote about how inspiring it was just to see her underclothes drying on the line. Nevertheless, she was widely considered "the curse of the nation" as diarist John Evelyn wrote, as famous for her greed, temper and promiscuity as she was for her beauty and figure.

As she grew older, the King's attraction to her began to wane. (He had many other ladies to sate his desires, any way.) In 1673, Barbara even lost her place in court, not because the Queen had finally triumphed, but because the Test Act prevented Catholics (as she was) from holding office, including as Lady of the Bedchamber. (Of course, Charles said he was interested in women's bodies not their souls.) By the time Charles added the luscious Frenchwoman Louise de Kerouaille to his collection of mistresses, Barbara's ongoing angry fits drove him to send her away.

She moved to Paris for a few years but was briefly reconciled with Charles after her return. They were even seen together shortly before his death in 1685. His death did not slow her as she continued her rowdy lifestyle. After her husband, the unfortunate Roger, finally died, the 65-year-old Barbara briefly married a fortune hunter, until she found out that he was already married. She died just a few years later in 1709.

All three of her sons by Charles became dukes during her lifetime. Her two older daughters married earls while the youngest daughter (who most likely did not belong to Charles) became a Benedictine nun. Today, much of the British aristocracy is descended from her. In fact, seven current Royal Highnesses (William, George, Charlotte, Louis, Harry, Beatrice and Eugenie) count her as an ancestor because both the late Diana Princess of Wales and Sarah Duchess of York were descended from her.

For more about Lady Castlemaine:

Barbara Palmer on English Monarchs
Barbara Palmer (Countess of Castlemaine) on The Diary of Samuel Pepys
Barbara Villiers on Historic UK
"The Curse of Nation" on Erin Lawless
The King's Whore on Scandalous Women
Lady Castlemaine on The Honest Courtesan
Like a Virgin on Pippa Rathbone's SCRATCH POST
Mistress of the Bedchamber on The Diary Review
Mistresses of King Charles II: Barbara Villiers on Stuarts Weekly
My Lady Castlemaine by Philip IV Sergeant, B.J.
The Story of Barbara Palmer on Author, Jane Lark's Stories

08 May 2019

Welcome Little Archie

When it comes to guessing royal baby names, I am the world's worst. I have never even come close to being right. However, I did get one thing correct about the name of the Duke and Duchess of Sussex's first child: it is without precedent. Unlike, the children of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, who will remain close to the crown all of their lives, Meghan and Harry's son will drift quite far from the royal limelight. (The last prince born seventh in line to the throne, like this baby, is now #48!) Therefore, there was no pressure at all to select a traditional name for the tyke. Nevertheless, many people were still surprised when the name was announced as Archie Harrison Mountbatten-Windsor.

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As adorable as the name Archie may sound to some -- and as much as Meghan and Harry clearly like it -- it does break with some precedents.

Firstly, no member of the British Royal Family has ever been given a first name that most people consider to be a nickname. "Archie" is usually short for Archibald. Secondly, even the name Archibald is almost without precedent. You have to stretch back five centuries to find it in the family tree.  The Scots lord Archibald Douglas 6th Earl of Angus married Henry VIII's older sister, Margaret Tudor, after her first husband, King James IV of Scotland died. This made Archibald the stepfather of King James V. He and Margaret had a daughter, also named Margaret, who married Matthew Stewart 4th Earl of Lennox. Their son Henry Stuart Lord Darnley famously (infamously?) married his cousin Mary Queen of Scots and fathered King James VI of Scotland, who later succeeded Queen Elizabeth I of England as King James I of England. The two thrones were later merged. The new little Archie is descended from this original "royal" Archibald through several lines through both his grandfather Prince Charles and his late grandmother Lady Diana Spencer.

Thirdly, the name Harrison is even more clearly without precedent. There is no great-great-great grandpa Harrison in the royal family tree. However, the name may just be a nod to the age-old tradition of recognizing a child by its father's name. Marvel fans may be familiar with Thor Son of Odin. Or, perhaps you have heard of Leif Ericsson? Ericsson was not his surname or his family name; it literally meant that his father was named Eric. The name Harrison literally means "Son of Harry" and you couldn't get more spot-on than that. Many cultures share this patronymic (father's name) tradition: Abu or Ibn in Arabic, Ben in Hebrew, Ap in Welsh, -vich in Slavic languages, etc. Fitz meant "son of" in Norman French and was used as a part of surnames for some royal bastards as recently as Queen Victoria's first cousins, the plentiful FitzClarences, children of King William IC who were born when he was still the Duke of Clarence. Even the prefix of Mc-, Mac- or O' so common in the British Isles originally indicated who the father was. The use of formal surnames that passed from generation to generation tends to be a more modern concept, especially for non-noble classes. At the time surnames were adopted, people who had a patronym, just passed their own down to their children, freezing the that genealogical marker in time. (Other surnames were commonly derived from location names or jobs but even these mark a certain point in history. For instance, I have known many people named Cooper, but none of them made barrels for a living.)

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Finally, little Archie Harrison received only two names. While that's quite common for most of us. It is not as common for babies with royal daddies. The Queen's children and Prince Charles's children (including Harry, who is named Henry Albert Charles David) each have four names. Prince William's, Prince Andrew's, Prince Edward's and Princess Anne's children each have three. The Queen has three names (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary), but her younger sister, Margaret Rose, had only two. Princess Anne's oldest grandchild as three, but her other granddaughters only have two each. Queen Victoria only had two (Alexandrina Victoria) but her cousin/granddaughter-in-law, Queen Mary, had eight (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes).

Of course, the baby's announced surname, Mountbatten-Windsor, also raised questions among some who are less familiar with the history of the British Royal Family. Both names were "made up" in a sense in 1917, when the Queen's grandfather, King George V, decided that the members of the British Royal Family needed to drop all of their Germanic names and titles in the midst of World War I. The royal family itself did not really have a surname -- royals didn't need them -- so they really had to make something up. Ultimately, they decided to lay claim to the most historically British thing in their midst and named themselves after their home at Windsor Castle, which had originally been constructed by William the Conqueror shortly after his Norman Conquest in 1066. As for the royal cousins who had been born Princes of Battenberg, they merely translated their German name to English. Since "berg" means "mountain", they renamed their family Mountbatten. One of their princesses, however, was already married to a Greek prince. During the next World War, her son, Prince Philip of Greece fought in the British Navy. Afterward, in the run-up to his marriage to the heir to the British throne, he surrendered his foreign citizenship and his royal house. He opted to adopt his mother's family's newish surname of Mountbatten. When his engagement to Princess Elizabeth was announced, he was simply Lt. Philip Mountbatten. (His father-in-law made him Duke of Edinburgh and an HRH and made it so that the children of the marriage would be HRH Prince/Princess.)

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Everything seemed fine for a time. Four and a half years after the wedding, Princess Elizabeth became Queen Elizabeth and some people wondered what her surname was as married women traditionally took their husband's name. When Philip's uncle Louis Earl Mountbatten of Burma boastfully toasted the Royal House of Mountbatten, the actual Royal Household and senior royals were aghast. Parliament quickly decided that Elizabeth and her children were all of the Royal House of Windsor. Philip is said to have felt emasculated. "I'm just a bloody amoeba!" he declared at one point in response to this and other slights. He was, he noted, the only man who could not give his name to his children. This is thought to have been a rough point in the royal marriage for a long time, until shortly before their third child, Prince Andrew, was born in 1960. Elizabeth issued an Order in Council declaring that their male-line descendants who lacked royal titles and styles would use the hyphenated surname of Mountbatten-Windsor. Since then, the name has appeared from time to time on wedding registeries and birth records of many family members who DO have royal titles. It is the name of Prince Edward's children who do not use their royal styles, however, his daughter is usually just referred to as The Lady Louise Windsor. This means that little Archie may be the first descendant who may actually use the combined surname throughout his entire life.

The bigger issue, in my option, is not the baby's name but his title. Or rather, his lack of title. Although many people wished that he would have been HRH Prince Archie of Sussex, like his Cambridge cousins, he actually wasn't entitle to a royal title. Royal styles currently only extend to the children and male-line grandchildren of the monarch and to the children of the Prince of Wales's firstborn son. In order for the child of the Prince of Wales's second-born son to become a prince, new Letters Patent would have been needed.

However, calling Meghan and Harry's baby just plain-old "Master Archie Mountbatten-Windsor" flies in the face of centuries of aristocratic tradition. The eldest son of a duke, royal or otherwise, is traditionally allowed to use his father's next highest secondary title. In this case, Harry's next title is Earl of Dumbarton. The daughter of a duke is traditionally entitled as Lady First Name Surname and younger sons as Lord First Name Surname. (The children of the Queen's cousin the Duke of Kent are the Earl of St. Andrews, Lady Helen Taylor and Lord Nicholas Windsor. Even Prince Michael of Kent, way down at #48 in the Line of Succession these days, has children who are style Lord Frederick Windsor and Lady Gabriella Windsor.) If Meghan and Harry wished for their children to have no titles at all, they could have refused to accept the titles that Harry was granted just last year. Of course, under current practices, this would have made Meghan's title Princess Harry. I can only imagine the uproar that would have caused on at least two fronts: one that she was 'forced' to use her husband's name (as Princess Michael of Kent does) and two that she 'outranks' her sister-in-law, the future Queen Consort, who is merely Duchess of Cambridge. Both of these are fallacies of sorts. Until extremely recently, all married women used their husband's name (Miss Jane Taylor married and became Mrs. John Smith). More importantly, and I want you all to remember this, both Catherine and Meghan ARE princesses because their husband's are princes. Period. They are styled as Duchesses, rather than as Princess William and Princess Harry.

Over all of this title business is looming another issue: the future. As it stands, no matter what Archie is called now, he is his father's heir. Unless he predeceases Harry or surrenders his rights himself, he will inherit the Duke of Sussex title at some point in the hopefully distant future. Much sooner than that, Archie will stop being the great-grandson of the monarch and become the grandson of the monarch. As you'll remember, male-line grandsons are entitle to be HRH Prince. What will happen the Prince of Wales becomes King? Will Master Archie suddenly become Prince Archie, or will he be the only member of the immediate royal family without a title of any kind?

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01 May 2019

Happy 4th Birthday, Princess Charlotte of Cambridge

May 2, 2019 marks the fourth birthday of The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge's only daughter, Princess Charlotte of Cambridge. As has been the case with most of the official photos of the three Cambridge children, these three photos were taken by the Duchess, who is a keen amateur photographer. And, frankly, who better to capture these carefree kinds of photos?

As the world eagerly awaits the next addition to the Windsor Family, Charlotte's new cousin, I hope you enjoy these photos and links to my previous posts about the world's favorite little princess. (Feel free to join in the guessing game about whom Charlotte most resembles: The Queen? Prince William? The Spencers?)

All photos copyright HRH The Duchess of Cambridge
via Kensington Palace

Other Posts about Princess Charlotte
Princess Charlotte Breaks Glass Ceiling
A Title for Princess Charlotte